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Thursday, June 2, 2016

Immediate constituent analysis



 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Immediate constituent analysis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immediate_constituent_analysis
In linguistics, immediate constituent analysis or IC analysis is a method of sentence analysis that was first mentioned by Leonard Bloomfield[1] and developed further by Rulon Wells.[2] The process reached a full-blown strategy for analyzing sentence structure in the early works of Noam Chomsky.[3] The practice is now widespread. Most tree structures employed to represent the syntactic structure of sentences are products of some form of IC-analysis. The process and result of IC-analysis can, however, vary greatly based upon whether one chooses the constituency relation of phrase structure grammars (= constituency grammars) or the dependency relation of dependency grammars as the underlying principle that organizes constituents into hierarchical structures.

IC-analysis in phrase structure grammars
Given a phrase structure grammar (= constituency grammar), IC-analysis divides up a sentence into major parts or immediate constituents, and these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents.[4] The process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a word or a meaningful part of a word. The end result of IC-analysis is often presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical immediate constituent structure of the sentence at hand. These diagrams are usually trees. For example:

This tree illustrates the manner in which the entire sentence is divided first into the two immediate constituents this tree and illustrates IC-analysis according to the constituency relation; these two constituents are further divided into the immediate constituents this and tree, and illustrates IC-analysis and according to the constituency relation; and so on.
An important aspect of IC-analysis in phrase structure grammars is that each individual word is a constituent by definition. The process of IC-analysis always ends when the smallest constituents are reached, which are often words (although the analysis can also be extended into the words to acknowledge the manner in which words are structured). The process is, however, much different in dependency grammars, since many individual words do not end up as constituents in dependency grammars.

IC-analysis in dependency grammars
IC-analysis is much different in dependency grammars.[5] Since dependency grammars view the finite verb as the root of all sentence structure, they cannot and do not acknowledge the initial binary subject-predicate division of the clause associated with phrase structure grammars. What this means for the general understanding of constituent structure is that dependency grammars do not acknowledge a finite verb phrase (VP) constituent and many individual words also do not qualify as constituents, which means in turn that they will not show up as constituents in the IC-analysis. Thus in the example sentence This tree illustrates IC-analysis according to the dependency relation, many of the phrase structure grammar constituents do not qualify as dependency grammar constituents:

This IC-analysis does not view the finite verb phrase illustrates IC-analysis according to the dependency relation nor the individual words tree, illustrates, according, to, and relation as constituents.
While the structures that IC-analysis identifies for dependency and constituency grammars differ in significant ways, as the two trees just produced illustrate, both views of sentence structure are acknowledging constituents. The constituent is defined in a theory-neutral manner:
Constituent
A given word/node plus all the words/nodes that that word/node dominates
This definition is neutral with respect to the dependency vs. constituency distinction. It allows one to compare the IC-analyses across the two types of structure. A constituent is always a complete tree or a complete subtree of a tree, regardless of whether the tree at hand is a constituency or a dependency tree.

Constituency tests
The IC-analysis for a given sentence is arrived at usually by way of constituency tests. Constituency tests (e.g. topicalization, clefting, pseudoclefting, pro-form substitution, answer ellipsis, passivization, omission, coordination, etc.) identify the constituents, large and small, of English sentences. Two illustrations of the manner in which constituency tests deliver clues about constituent structure and thus about the correct IC-analysis of a given sentence are now given. Consider the phrase The girl in the following trees:
The acronym BPS stands for "bare phrase structure", which is an indication that the words are used as the node labels in the tree. Again, focusing on the phrase The girl, the tests unanimously confirm that it is a constituent as both trees show:
...the girl is happy - Topicalization (invalid test because test constituent is already at front of sentence)
It is the girl who is happy. - Clefting
(The one)Who is happy is the girl. - Pseudoclefting
She is happy. - Pro-form substitution
Who is happy? -The girl. - Answer ellipsis
Based on these results, one can safely assume that the noun phrase The girl in the example sentence is a constituent and should therefore be shown as one in the corresponding IC-representation, which it is in both trees. Consider next what these tests tell us about the verb string is happy:
*...is happy, the girl. - Topicalization
*It is is happy that the girl. - Clefting
*What the girl is is happy. - Pseudoclefting
*The girl so/that/did that. - Pro-form substitution
What is the girl? -*Is happy. - Answer ellipsis
The star * indicates that the sentence is not acceptable English. Based on data like these, one might conclude that the finite verb string is happy in the example sentence is not a constituent and should therefore not be shown as a constituent in the corresponding IC-representation. Hence this result supports the IC-analysis in the dependency tree over the one in the constituency tree, since the dependency tree does not view is happy as a constituent.

Thursday, May 26, 2016

BOUND MORPHEMES

GREEK AND LATIN MORPHEMES IN ENGLISH WORDS
http://alexandstein.com/main/morphemes
The following are a bulk order of  Greek and Latin morphemes found in English words, as quoted from http://alexandstein.com, http://www.ruf.rice.edu. They are of  bound ones. Your task in this exercise is to supply example, at least two, for each of them.

MORPHEM
MEANING
EXAMPLES

-ic
A,N

-ize
V

-y
N

anthrop
human

bio
life

cac
bad

chrom
color

chron
time

circum-
around

cosm
universe, order, ornament

de-
in reverse, away, down

ecto-
outside

endo-
inside

extra-
outside

gam
marriage, sexual union

iatr
treat, heal

idi
individual, own

infra-
below, after

inter-
between, among

intra-
within

log
study, speak

macro-
long, large

micro-
small

mis-
hate

morph
shape, form

nom
law, system

path
feel, illness

peri-
around, close

phil
love, tendency

phon
sound, speech sound

pol
community, city, state

post-
after, behind

pre-
before

pseud
false

psych
mind, spirit

pyr
fire, fever

supra-
above, greater

theo
god

top
place

xen
foreign

a-/an-
not, without

anim
mind, spirit, life

ab-/abs-
from, away

-ary/-ory
A, N

-ate
N, A, V*

contra-/counter-
against, facing

corp/corpor
body, flesh

culp
fault, crime

duc
lead, draw, pull

-ence/-ance
N

-ent/-ant
A, N

fug
flee

grat
thankful, kind

greg
gather

hom
earthling, human

-ion
N

-ive
A, N

leg
law, charge

liber
weigh, consider

liter
letter

mot
move

nat
source, birth, tribe

nov
new

omni-
all

-ous
A

par
beget, produce

per-
through, bad

pet
go, seek

petr
rock

pot
be able, powerful

pro-
forward, for

prob
test, find good

re-/red-
again, back

sci
know, discern

se-/sed-
apart

sec
cut, split

somn
sleep

tempor
time

ven
come, bring

ver
true

al/ol
nurture, grow

am/im/amor
love

ana-
up, again, back

ann/enn
year

ante-/anti-
old, before

apec/apic
tip

apt/ept
fit, capable

bol/bl
throw, extend

cap/cep/cip/cup
take, contain

cata-
down, away, back, opposite

cer/cre/cr
separate, judge

cid/cis
cut, kill

con-/co-
together, with

cub/cumb
lie down, remain

dei/div
god, augury

dia-
through, apart

equ/iqu
even, level

erg/urg/org
work

fac/fec/fic
do, make

frag/frang/fring
break

fus
pour, melt, blend

gon/gen/gn
birth, type, origin

hypo-
under, below, partial

in-/en-
in, into

men/mn
think, mind

meta-
beyond

noc/nec/nic/necr
harm, death

-oid
resembling [A, N]

para-
beside, resembling

pond/pend
hang, weigh, pay, consider

sacer/secr
holy, priestlike

semen/semin
seed

spec/spic
look, see

sta/stat/stet/stit
stand, condition

tat/teg/tig/tang/ting
touch, feel

ten/tin
hold, maintain

tom/tm
cut

vic/vinc
conquer

vor
eat

zo
animal

-ity
N [name of quality]

-sis
N [name of action or its result]

ad-
to, toward

ag/ig
act, do, drive

alt
high

ambl
walk, go

andr
male, man

apo-
away, from, off

arch
first, govern

av
bird, fly

cad/cas/cid
fall

ced/ceed/cess
go, let go

clud/clus
to close

dog/doc
teach

epi-
on, over

ero
physical love

esthet/esthes
perceive, feel

eu
well, good

ex-/e-/ec-
out, away

grad/gred/gress
step, go

heli
sun

hetero-
other, different

homo-/homeo-
same

in-
not

iso-
equal

leg/lig
pick, read

lic
permissible, unrestrained

meso-
middle

neo
new, recent

ob-
towards, against, down

phot/phos
light

prag
act, do

reg/rig
rule, straight

sent/sens
feel, think

sub-
under, down, secondary

super-
above, excessive

syn-
with, together

tele
far

ten/tend/tens
stretch, thin

trans-/tra-
across, through

trud/trus
thrust

bell
war

bi
two

cens
judge, assess

cent
hundred, hundredth

cephal
head

crat/crac
govern

cur
care

decem/decim/deca
ten, tenth

dem
people

demi
half

di/dich/dy/du
two

dipl
double

fla
blow

hecto/hecato
hundred, many

hemi/semi
half

hept/sept/septen
seven, seventh

hex/sex
six, sixth

kilo
thousand

loc
place

lumen/lumin
light

man
hand, handle

milli
thousand(th)

mono
one

myri
countless, numerous, 10,000

noven/nona
nine, ninth

octo/octav
eight

pauc
few

penta
five

plur
many, more

pol
community, society

poly
many

prim/prin
first, foremost

proto
first, earliest

quadr/quarter/quart
four, fourth

quin/quint/quinqu
five, fifth

sesqui
one and a half, one half more

son
sound

tetra/tessara
four

tri/tris/trich/ter
three

un
one

vig/viginti/vic
twenty

ac/acer/acerb
sharp, tip, extremities

agr
field

alb/albin
white

aster
star

aud
hear

auto, tauto
self, same

bath, bathy
depth

bene/bon
good, well

brach/brachy
short

car/carn
flesh

sli/cliv/slin
lean, lie, bed

cre/cred
believe, trust

crypt/cryph
secret, hidden

dam/damn/dem/demn
loss, harm

dec/dic/deic
speak, point

dit/don/dot
give

dos/dow/da/dat
?

dol/dolor
suffer

flu/fluc/fluv
flow, river

glosss/glot/glott
tongue, speech

gn/gnos/gnor
know

gyn/gynec
woman, female

hes/her
to stick hold back

hyd/hydr
water

jus/jur
judge, law, ritual

lith/lite
stone

mega/megal
great, million

misc/mix
mix

nihil/hil
nothing

ocl/ocell
eye

pen/pun
punish

ple/plec/plic
fold, tangle

ple/plen
full, many

pon/pos
place, put

pug/pugn
fist, fight

tach/tachy
fast

tact/tax
arrange, order

terr
earth

vac/van
empty

ver/verg/vers
turn

viv/vit
life

soror
sister

spor
scatter, seed

the
place, put

uxor
wife

val
strong, useful

vac/vok
speak, call, voice

al/all/allel
other

card/cord
heart, agree

cruc
cross, important point

dec/decor
acceptable

ed/es
eat

fa/pha/phe
speak, spoken of

fer/pher/phor
bear, carry, send, bring

frater
brother

ge
earth

gem/gemin
twin

ger
old person

graph/gram
write, record

juven
young

lat
carry

lig
tie, bind

lign
wood

loqu/locu
speak

magn
great, large

mater/metr
mother, womb, surrounding stuff

myc
fungus

noc/nyc
night

nomen/onom/onomat/onym
name

orth
straight, correct

paleo
old

pater
father, country

ped/paed
child, teach

ped/pod/pus
foot

phyll
leaf

phyt
plant

pom
fruit, apple

pred
prey

rhizo
root

sal/saul
jump

salv/salu
safe, healthy

aden
gland

alg
pain

aur
ear

axill
armpit

caud/doc
tail

cervic
neck, neck of uterus

cut
skin

derm/dermat
skin

gaster
stomach

gravid
pregnant

hem/em
blood

hepat
liver

hist
body tissue

hyster
womb, neurotic disorder

-ia
land, state, medical condition

-it is
inflammation

lab
lip

lac
milk

lacrim/lachrym
tear, tear duct

laryng
voice box, vocal cords

mamm
breast

nas/nar
nose

nephr
kidney

-oma
tumor, growth

op/ophthalm
eye, see

os/osteo
bone

os/or
mouth, opening

phleb
vein

phob
fear

phylac
guard

pne/pneum
lung, respiration

pulmo
lung

rhin
nose

sarc
flesh

scler
hard

sep
putrid, infected

stom
mouth, opening

thromb
clot

vas/ves
blood vessel, duct

ven
vein

ali
wing

api
bee

arachn
spider

bov/bu/bos/bou
cow, milk

chir
hand

clam/claim
cry out, call

clav
key, locked

col
live, inhabit, grow

curs/curr
run

den/odon
tooth

dendr/dr/dry
tree

dyn
power

ev
age, time

formic
ant

herp/herpet/serp
creep, reptile

hor
hour, time, season

ichthy
fish

ly/lv/lu
loosen, dissolve

mal/male
bad

mant/manc
prophesy

mun
common, public, gift

naut/nav
boat, seafaring

nul/null
nothing

orn/ornith
bird

ov/oo
egg

ox/oxy
sharp, sour, oxygen

phag
eat

pithec
ape

plac
please, flat

pter
feather, wing

rog
ask, take away

sen
old

som
body

soph
wuse, knowledge

strat
stretch, level, layer

telo-/teleo-
end, complete

trop
turn